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Powder metallurgy process is a process of producing powder and using metal and non-metal mixture powder as raw material, forming and sintering to obtain parts and products. As the main raw material of industry, powder materials are widely used in the fields of machinery, metallurgy, chemical industry, and aerospace materials. Powder is the basic raw material of powder metallurgy industry, its output and quality determine the development of powder metallurgy industry. Powders are generally aggregates of particles smaller than 1 mm. There is no uniform regulation on the division of particle size intervals, and the commonly used division methods are: regular powders with particles in the range of 1000-50 µm; fine powders with 50-10 µm; ultra-fine powders with 10-0.5 µm; ultra-fine powders <0.5 µm; 0.1~100nm is called nanoscale powder.

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Microstructural Morphology Of Powders

With the progress of technology, powder in metallurgy, chemical industry, electronics, magnetic materials, fine ceramics, sensors, etc. have been developed and applied, showing good prospects for application, and the powder material shows a trend towards high purity, ultrafine (nano) direction. Although the preparation of ultrafine powders in a variety of ways, according to the use and economic and technical requirements of different methods, but each method has certain limitations, there are many problems that need to be solved and improved. At present, the production of powder materials widely used method is the reduction method, electrolysis and atomisation method; in addition to the traditional production process on the basis of improvement, we have obtained a number of new production processes and methods, such as vacuum evaporation and condensation method, ultrasonic atomisation method, rotating disc atomisation method, double-roller and three-roller atomisation method, multi-stage atomisation method, plasma rotating electrode method, electric arc method. Among the methods of powder production, although many of them have been practically applied, there are still two main problems, namely, small scale and high production cost. In order to promote the development and application of powder materials, it is necessary to make comprehensive use of different methods, to complement their strengths and weaknesses, and to develop process methods with larger production volumes and lower costs.

Powder Preparation Method

At present, the industrial production of powder methods up to dozens of methods, but on the substance of the production process analysis, mainly divided into two categories of mechanical and physicochemical method, both from the solid, liquid, gaseous metal direct refinement of the metal obtained, but also from its different states of the metal compounds by reduction, pyrolysis, electrolytic transformation of the system. Refractory metal carbides, nitrides, borides, silicides can generally be produced directly by chemically or reductively - chemically. Because of the different production methods, the same powder shape, structure and particle size and other characteristics often vary greatly. The choice of metal powder production method depends on the raw material, the type of powder, the performance requirements of the powder material and the production efficiency of the powder. As the application of powder metallurgy products becomes more and more widespread, the size and shape of powder particles and performance requirements are becoming higher and higher, so the powder preparation technology is also constantly developing and innovating to adapt to the requirements of particle size and performance.

Mechanical Method

It is a processing method that crushes the metal into the required particle size powder with the help of mechanical external force, and the chemical composition of the material is basically unchanged in the preparation process of this method. At present, the commonly used methods are ball milling and grinding method, the advantages of its process is simple, large output, can prepare some conventional methods are difficult to obtain the high melting point of metals and alloys of ultrafine powder.

Ball Milling

The ball milling method is mainly divided into the rolling ball method and the vibratory ball milling method. This method makes use of the mechanism that metal particles are broken and refined by straining under different strain rates. This method is mainly applicable to the preparation of powders such as Sb, Cr, Mn, Fe-Cr alloys, etc.

Abrasive Method

Grinding method is the compressed gas through a special nozzle, sprayed to the grinding area, thus driving the materials in the grinding area to collide with each other, friction into powder; gas flow expansion with the material up into the grading area, by the turbine classifier to sort out the materials to reach the particle size, and the rest of the coarse powder to return to the grinding area to continue to grind until it reaches the required particle size to be sorted out. It is widely used in the ultrafine crushing of non-metals, chemical raw materials, pigments, abrasives, health care drugs and other industries.


The atomisation method generally uses high-pressure gas, high-pressure liquid or high-speed rotating blades to break the metal or alloy that has been melted at high temperature and high pressure into tiny droplets, which are then condensed in a collector to obtain ultra-fine metal powder, and the process does not undergo chemical changes. Atomisation is one of the main methods for producing metal and alloy powders. There are many methods of atomisation, such as double-flow atomisation, centrifugal atomisation, multi-stage atomisation, ultrasonic atomisation technology, tight-coupling atomisation technology, high-pressure gas atomisation, laminar flow atomisation, ultrasonic tight-coupling atomisation and hot gas atomisation. Atomisation is usually applied to the production of metal powders such as Fe, Sn, Zn, Pb, Cu, etc. It can also be used to produce alloy powders such as bronze, brass, carbon steel, alloy steel, etc. The atomisation method can meet the special requirements of metal powders for 3D printing consumables. The left figure is a photo of the microscopic morphology of the spherical powder of high-strength titanium alloy for 3D printing prepared by our plasma rotating electrode atomisation powder making equipment:

Physical-chemical Method

It refers to the production method of obtaining ultrafine powder by changing the chemical composition or agglomeration state of raw materials in the process of powder preparation. According to the different chemical principles can be divided into reduction, electrolysis and chemical replacement method.


Electrolysis is a method of depositing metal powders at the cathode by electrolysis of molten salts or aqueous solutions of salts. Electrolysis of aqueous solution can produce Cu, Ni, Fe, Ag, Sn, Fe-Ni and other metal (alloy) powder, electrolysis of molten salt can produce Zr, Ta, Ti, Nb and other metal powders. The advantage is that the purity of the metal powder produced is high, and the purity of the general monomaterial powder can reach more than 99.7%; in addition, the electrolysis method can control the particle size of the powder very well, and ultra-fine powder can be produced. However, electrolytic powder production consumes a lot of power, and the cost of powder production is high.


Reduction method is the use of reducing agent in certain conditions will be metal oxides or metal salts such as reduction and the production of metal or alloy powder method, is widely used in the production of one of the powder method. Commonly used reducing agents are gas reducing agent (such as hydrogen, decomposition of ammonia, conversion of natural gas, etc.), solid carbon reducing agent (such as charcoal, coke, anthracite, etc.) and metal reducing agent (such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, etc.). Hydrogen dehydrogenation method with hydrogen as the reaction medium is a representative preparation method, which uses the raw material metal is easy to hydrogenate the characteristics of the metal and hydrogen at a certain temperature so that the metal and hydrogen hydrogen hydrogenation reaction to generate metal hydride, and then with the help of mechanical methods will be obtained from the metal hydride crushed into the desired particle size of the powder, and then crushed metal hydride powder hydrogen in the vacuum conditions to remove, so as to obtain the metal powder. Mainly used in Ti, Fe, W, Mo, Nb, W-Re and other metal (alloy) powder production. Such as titanium metal (powder) at a certain temperature will begin to react violently with hydrogen, when the amount of hydrogen is greater than 2.3%, hydride loose, easy to crush into fine particles of hydrogenated titanium powder, hydrogenated titanium powder at a temperature of about 700 ° C or so, the decomposition of the titanium powder as well as most of the solid dissolved in the titanium powder hydrogen removal, you can get titanium powder.


Synthesis of certain metals (iron, nickel, etc.) with carbon monoxide to metal carbonyl compounds, and then thermal decomposition to metal powder and carbon monoxide. It is mainly used industrially to produce fine and ultra-fine powders of nickel and iron, as well as alloy powders of Fe-Ni, Fe-Co, Ni-Co, etc... The powders thus produced are very fine and of high purity, but at a high cost.

Chemical Displacement (Chemistry)

Chemical replacement method is based on the strength of the activity of the metal, the activity of the strong metal will be less active metal from the metal salt solution will be replaced out of the metal will be replaced by the metal (metal powder) with other methods of further processing and refinement. This method is mainly applied to the preparation of inactive metal powders such as Cu, Ag, Au, etc.

As early as 10 years ago, we have introduced the ultra-high-pressure powder making system and process with world advanced level from the Powder Metallurgy Institute of Central South University, meanwhile, we cooperate with Beijing General Research Institute of Nonferrous Metals and other scientific and technological colleges and universities in the research, development and production of various micro-fine metal and alloy powders. The company has one set of high-pressure water atomisation and one set of gas atomisation powder making system, and one set of mechanical ball milling powder making system, which mainly produces metal, alloy and non-metallic powders of various specifications, which not only provide raw materials for the production of our sputtering targets, but also produce different varieties and specifications of powders according to the requirements of scientific research customers for scientific research purposes. At the same time, because of the diversity of powder material preparation methods and powder types, we can not independently produce all the powder products, some of the powder materials we use is the agent distribution mode, whether self-produced or agent, "high quality and efficiency" is our commitment to customers, "perfect High quality and high efficiency" is our promise to customers, "perfect" is our eternal pursuit. In addition, we have a wide range of standard powders in stock and can provide fast delivery service. Below is the catalogue introduction of some of our regular powder products, if you can't find a powder product that meets your requirements in our catalogue, it doesn't mean that there is none, you can contact us for consultation.

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